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Soil Types in India – Indian Soil Map, Classification & Characteristics

Varsha Chaturvedi 0

There is major 6 soil types in India. These soils in India are rich in Chemical composition.

indian soil map
  • Alluvial soil
  • Black soil or regur soil
  • Red soil
  • Laterite soil
  • Desert or Arid soil,
  • Forest and mountainous soil.

They are also rich in chemical ingredients. These soil deposits are formed by the residues or segments brought down by rivers. Let us read about each Indian soil in brief.

1. Alluvial soil:

  • Highest soil in India (covers about 43%)
  • Extensive in river valleys and northern plains
  • In peninsular-India, alluvial soil is mostly found in estuaries and deltas
  • Lime, Humus, and organic matters are there.
  • Highly fertile Indian soil
  • Light Grey to Ash Grey in colour
  • Very rich in potash and poor in phosphorous.
  • Mainly cultivated rice, wheat, maize, pulses, sugarcane, oilseed etc

2. Black soil or regur soil

  • Regur means cotton which is the best soil for cultivation of cotton.
  • Mainly available in Deccan
  • Black soil is a Mature soil.
  • This soil type in India has a very High-water absorbent capacity.
  • The main characteristic of black soil is Self-ploughing as wide cracks are developed when it is dried.

3. Red soil

  • Red soil grows on crystalline igneous.
  • Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, southern area of the middle Ganga plain and laterally the Piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
  • These soils in India develop a reddish colour which is caused by the diffusion of iron in metamorphic and crystalline rocks.

4. Laterite soil

  • Laterite soils are largely found in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Assam and Odisha.
  • This India soil is very valuable to grow coffee and tea.
  • Red laterite soils in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are more appropriate for cashew nut like crops.

5. Desert or Arid soil

  • Found under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions.
  • Deposited typically due to wind activities.
  • High salt content.
  • Lack of moisture and Humus
  • Impure Calcium carbonate or Kankar content is high which confines the water infiltration.
  • Nitrogen is inadequate
  • Phosphate is usual.
  • Sandy in texture
  • Red to Brown in colour

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6. Forest Soil.

  • Mainly found in high rainfall regions.
  • Due to less Humus content, this soli type in India is acidic in nature.

7. Mountainous soil

  • Mainly found in the mountain regions of the India
  • Immature soil with low humus and

FAQ for Soil Types in India

Still have doubts regarding Soil types in India? Read out these simple questions and all your basic facts will be cleared.

If you are someone who is preparing for upsc then this topic Soil deposits in India is very useful for you as every year upsc asks a question from this topic.

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